Week 2 of the Coding Period (Phase 1) is coming to an end. This week was mostly devoted towards polishing the existing PRs, and bringing them to a mergeable condition. And this week resulted in the merge of 2 PRs. Yayy !!! Here are the deliverables which have been completed in this week. We talked about the remaining work needed to be done in Week 1, and the initial work of Week 2.

  • Now, PR #16869, had many loopholes which had to be corrected, before it possibly could have been merged. One issue was that it currently was not able to handle multiple symbols, like fps of x**(m+n)*sin(x**2). So I had to list out all the free symbols in the formal power series, other than x, and those, obviously were the symbols used in the expression, which needed to be seperated.

So, I implemented this piece of code –

    syms = f.free_symbols.difference({x})
    (f, symb) = expand(f).as_independent(*syms)
    if symb is S.Zero:
        symb = S.One
    symb = powsimp(symb)

, which helped us to remove all the symbolic terms, and pass only the non-symbolix term into the fps algorithm.

  • One more feature implemented in the above PR, were the simplification of terms using powsimp. The exponents of the terms are now grouped and printed. Same exists for ak, xk, and ind of the fps. Therefore, previously, we had :-
      f = x**n*sin(x**2)
      assert fps(f, x).truncate(8) == x**2*x**n - x**6*x**n/6 + O(x**(n + 8), x)

    But now, we have :-

      f = x**n*sin(x**2)
      assert fps(f, x).truncate(8) == x**(n + 2) - x**(n + 6)/6 + O(x**(n + 8), x)

    After some polishing of the code, like re-using free symbols property of SeriesBase, we brought the PR to a mergeable state. Sartaj had a lot of suggestions, and those were duly resolved. The PR was ready for review, and it was recently merged (yesterday) !!

  • Previously, in Week 1, I was looking into Issue 12310, and had come up with a solution. Aaron had already stated in the PR, that we need to create a Coeff class to properly indicate the coefficient sequence of polynomials. I followed his comments, and published PR #16943. Formerly, polynomial functions, when referenced through fps, did not return a Formal Power Series object, instead the function itself got returned.
>>> from sympy import Symbol, fps
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> p = fps(x ** 2)
>>> p
>>> type(p)
<class 'sympy.core.power.Pow'>
>>> p[0]
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: 'Pow' object does not support indexing

I implemented the Coeff class according to the lines of Aaron’s comment here. Further integration of class methods and functions might be required into the class. Coefficient sequence of the formal power series of polynomial functions contains a Coeff object now.

Now, A Formal Power Series object gets returned.

>>> from sympy import Symbol, fps
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> p = fps(x ** 2)
>>> p
FormalPowerSeries(x**2 + x + 1, x, 0, 1, (SeqFormula(Coeff(x**2 + x + 1, x, _k), (_k, 1, oo)), SeqFormula(x**_k, (_k, 0, oo)), 1))
>>> p.truncate()
1 + x + x**2 + O(x**6)
>>> p[0]

This PR successfully got approved and merged by Sartaj on 4th June !!

  • I also started thinking about the implementation of convolution, composition and inversion of formal power series. A FormalPowerSeries function implementation of def convolve(self, other, x=None, order=4) is almost completed, and I will publish a PR by the next week. It will not return any object, but just the truncated terms upto the specified order of the convoluted fps. For the composition part, I raised a discussion Issue #16975, where I and Sartaj discussed about the way we can implement the composition and inversion. For composition, there exists a closed form expression for the resultant power series, where the resultant coefficient sequence ak involves Bell polynomials, as follows –


Sartaj then provided his perspective in the above issue, and we will discuss about the implementation more about FiniteFormalPowerSeries in the upcoming week.

So that was it from Week 2. See you all in the next week !! Adios till then !!